Low Carbohydrate Diets: Understanding the Grim Long-Term Effects

1. Wang C-Y, Liao JK. A Mouse Type of Vitamin-Precipitated Weight problems and Insulin Resistance. Strategies Mol Biol Clifton NJ. 2012;821:421–33. 

2. The Fats of the Topic: How Nutritional Fats Results Blood Glucose [Internet]. [cited 2016 Mar 6]. To be had from: http://www.mendosa.com/The-Fats-of-the-Topic-How-Nutritional-Fats-Results-Blood-Glucose.htm

Three. Itani SI, Ruderman NB, Schmieder F, Boden G. Lipid-Precipitated Insulin Resistance in Human Muscle Is Related With Adjustments in Diacylglycerol, Protein Kinase C, and IκB-α. Diabetes. 2002 Jul 1;51(7):2005–11.

four. Boden G. Function of fatty acids within the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM. Diabetes. 1997 Jan;46(1):Three–10.

five. Boden G, Shulman GI. Unfastened fatty acids in weight problems and sort 2 diabetes: defining their position within the building of insulin resistance and β-cell disorder. Eur J Clin Make investments. 2002 Jun 1;32:14–23.

6. Lengthy Z, Zhang X, Solar Q, Liu Y, Liao N, Wu H, et al. Evolution of metabolic dysfunction in rats fed excessive sucrose or excessive fats vitamin: Center of attention on redox state and mitochondrial serve as. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Oct 20;

7. Sesti G, Federici M, Hribal ML, Lauro D, Sbraccia P, Lauro R. Defects of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) machine in human metabolic problems. FASEB J. 2001 Oct 1;15(12):2099–111.

eight. Russell WR, Gratz SW, Duncan SH, Holtrop G, Ince J, Scobbie L, et al. Prime-protein, reduced-carbohydrate weight-loss diets advertise metabolite profiles more likely to be destructive to colonic well being. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Would possibly 1;93(five):1062–72.

nine. Galgani JE, Moro C, Ravussin E. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov;295(five):E1009-1017.

10. Roden M. How unfastened fatty acids inhibit glucose usage in human skeletal muscle. Information Physiol Sci Int J Physiol Prod Collectively Int Union Physiol Sci Am Physiol Soc. 2004 Jun;19:92–6.

11. Roden M, Value TB, Perseghin G, Petersen KF, Rothman DL, Cline GW, et al. Mechanism of unfastened fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in people. J Clin Make investments. 1996 Jun 15;97(12):2859–65.

12. Silveira LR, Fiamoncini J, Hirabara SM, Procópio J, Cambiaghi TD, Pinheiro CHJ, et al. Updating the consequences of fatty acids on skeletal muscle. J Cellular Physiol. 2008 Oct;217(1):1–12.

13. Shulman GI. Mobile mechanisms of insulin resistance. J Clin Make investments. 2000 Jul;106(2):171–6.

14. Griffin ME, Marcucci MJ, Cline GW, Bell Ok, Barucci N, Lee D, et al. Unfastened fatty acid-induced insulin resistance is related to activation of protein kinase C theta and alterations within the insulin signaling cascade. Diabetes. 1999 Jun;48(6):1270–four.

15. Savage DB, Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Disordered Lipid Metabolism and the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance. Physiol Rev. 2007 Apr 1;87(2):507–20.

16. Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hales CN, Newsholme EA. The glucose fatty-acid cycle. Its position in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1963 Apr 13;1(7285):785–nine.

17. Hirabara SM, Silveira LR, Abdulkader F, Carvalho CRO, Procopio J, Curi R. Time-dependent results of fatty acids on skeletal muscle metabolism. J Cellular Physiol. 2007 Jan;210(1):7–15.

18. Yu C, Chen Y, Cline GW, Zhang D, Zong H, Wang Y, et al. Mechanism through which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol Three-kinase job in muscle. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 27;277(52):50230–6.

19. Anderson JW. Prime carbohydrate, excessive fiber diets for sufferers with diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979;119:263–73.

20. Anderson JW, Ward Ok. Lengthy-term results of high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets on glucose and lipid metabolism: a initial document on sufferers with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1978 Apr;1(2):77–82.

21. Rabinowitch IM. Results of the Prime Carbohydrate-Low Calorie Vitamin Upon Carbohydrate Tolerance in Diabetes Mellitus. Can Med Assoc J. 1935 Aug;33(2):136–44.




25. Kempner W, Peschel RL, Schlayer C. Impact of rice vitamin on diabetes mellitus related to vascular illness. Postgrad Med. 1958 Oct;24(four):359–71.

26. Delarue J, Magnan C. Unfastened fatty acids and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Mar;10(2):142–eight.

27. Martins AR, Nachbar RT, Gorjao R, Vinolo MA, Festuccia WT, Lambertucci RH, et al. Mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance brought about by way of fatty acids: significance of the mitochondrial serve as. Lipids Well being Dis. 2012;11:30.

28. Wang P-Y, Kaneko T, Wang Y, Tawata M, Sato A. Impairment of Glucose Tolerance in Standard Adults Following a Reduced Carbohydrate Consumption. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999;189(1):59–70.

29. Xiao C, Giacca A, Carpentier A, Lewis GF. Differential results of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fats ingestion on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, sensitivity and clearance in obese and overweight, non-diabetic people. Diabetologia. 2006 Apr five;49(6):1371–nine.

30. Boden G. Fatty acid-induced irritation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver. Curr Diab Rep. 2006 Jun;6(Three):177–81.

31. Barnard ND. Dr. Neal Barnard’s Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Confirmed Machine for Reversing Diabetes With out Medication. Rodale; 2006. 290 p.

32. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Inexperienced A, et al. A low-fat vegan vitamin and a traditional diabetes vitamin within the remedy of kind 2 diabetes: a randomized, managed, 74-wk medical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Would possibly;89(five):1588S–1596S.

33. Barnard ND, Katcher HI, Jenkins DJA, Cohen J, Turner-McGrievy G. Vegetarian and vegan diets in kind 2 diabetes control. Nutr Rev. 2009 Would possibly;67(five):255–63.

34. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, et al. A Low-Fats Vegan Vitamin Improves Glycemic Regulate and Cardiovascular Chance Components in a Randomized Scientific Trial in Folks With Kind 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug 1;29(eight):1777–83.

35. Anderson JW, Ward Ok. Prime-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-treated males with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Nov;32(11):2312–21.

36. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Augustin LSA, Mitchell S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Blanco Mejia S, et al. Impact of legumes as a part of a low glycemic index vitamin on glycemic keep watch over and cardiovascular chance elements in kind 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized managed trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Nov 26;172(21):1653–60.

37. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LSA, Ludwig DS, et al. Kind 2 diabetes and the vegetarian vitamin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(Three Suppl):610S–616S.

38. Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Wolever TM, Rao AV, Thompson LU. Fiber and starchy meals: intestine serve as and implications in illness. Am J Gastroenterol. 1986 Oct;81(10):920–30.

39. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Popovich DG, Vidgen E, Mehling CC, Vuksan V, et al. Impact of a very-high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut vitamin on serum lipids and colonic serve as. Metabolism. 2001 Apr;50(four):494–503.

40. Du H, Li L, Bennett D, Guo Y, Turnbull I, Yang L, et al. Contemporary fruit intake when it comes to incident diabetes and diabetic vascular headaches: A 7-y potential find out about of zero.five million Chinese language adults. PLOS Med. 2017 Apr 11;14(four):e1002279.

41. Trapp CB, Barnard ND. Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating kind 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2010 Apr;10(2):152–eight.

42. Rosenfalck AM, Almdal T, Viggers L, Madsbad S, Hilsted J. A low-fat vitamin improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in sufferers with Kind 1 diabetes. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. 2006 Apr;23(four):384–92.

43. Brehm A, Krssak M, Schmid AI, Nowotny P, Waldhäusl W, Roden M. Larger lipid availability impairs insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2006 Jan;55(1):136–40.

44. Hirabara SM, Silveira LR, Alberici LC, Leandro CVG, Lambertucci RH, Polimeno GC, et al. Acute impact of fatty acids on metabolism and mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jan;1757(1):57–66.

45. Krogvold L, Edwin B, Buanes T, Frisk G, Skog O, Anagandula M, et al. Detection of a low-grade enteroviral an infection within the islets of langerhans of dwelling sufferers newly identified with kind 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2015 Would possibly;64(five):1682–7.

46. Atkinson LL, McDonald-Dyck C, Benkoczi C, Finegood DT. Impact of power rosiglitazone, metformin and glyburide remedy on beta-cell mass, serve as and insulin sensitivity in mZDF rats. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Sep;10(nine):780–90.

47. Finegood DT, McArthur MD, Kojwang D, Thomas MJ, Topp BG, Leonard T, et al. Beta-cell mass dynamics in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Rosiglitazone prevents the upward push in internet mobile dying. Diabetes. 2001 Would possibly;50(five):1021–nine.

48. Unger RH, Orci L. Sicknesses of liporegulation: new standpoint on weight problems and similar problems. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol. 2001 Feb;15(2):312–21.

49. Unger RH. Lipotoxicity within the pathogenesis of obesity-dependent NIDDM. Genetic and medical implications. Diabetes. 1995 Aug;44(eight):863–70.

50. Unger RH, Zhou YT. Lipotoxicity of beta-cells in weight problems and in different reasons of fatty acid spillover. Diabetes. 2001 Feb;50 Suppl 1:S118-121.

51. Select A, Clark J, Kubstrup C, Levisetti M, Pugh W, Bonner-Weir S, et al. Function of apoptosis in failure of beta-cell mass repayment for insulin resistance and beta-cell defects within the male Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Diabetes. 1998 Mar 1;47(Three):358–64.

52. Zhou YP, Cockburn BN, Pugh W, Polonsky KS. Basal insulin hypersecretion in insulin-resistant Zucker diabetic and Zucker fatty rats: position of enhanced gas metabolism. Metabolism. 1999 Jul;48(7):857–64.

53. Kahn HA, Phillips RL, Snowdon DA, Choi W. Affiliation between reported vitamin and all-cause mortality. Twenty-one-year follow-up on 27,530 grownup 7th-Day Adventists. Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Would possibly;119(five):775–87.

54. Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl Ok, Fan J, Knutsen S, et al. Vegetarian Nutritional Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Well being Learn about 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul eight;173(13):1230–eight.

55. Levine ME, Suarez JA, Brandhorst S, Balasubramanian P, Cheng C-W, Madia F, et al. Low protein consumption is related to a significant aid in IGF-1, most cancers, and general mortality within the 65 and more youthful however now not older inhabitants. Cellular Metab. 2014 Mar four;19(Three):407–17.

56. Music M, Fung TT, Hu FB, Willett WC, Longo VD, Chan AT, et al. Affiliation of Animal and Plant Protein Consumption With All-Reason and Reason-Particular Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Aug 1;

57. Rohrmann S, Overvad Ok, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jakobsen MU, Egeberg R, Tjønneland A, et al. Meat intake and mortality–results from the Eu Potential Investigation into Most cancers and Diet. BMC Med. 2013;11:63.

58. Djoussé L, Gaziano JM. Egg intake when it comes to heart problems and mortality: the Physicians’ Well being Learn about. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(four):964–nine.

59. Noto H, Goto A, Tsujimoto T, Noda M. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Reason Mortality: A Systematic Evaluation and Meta-Research of Observational Research. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2013 Jan 25 [cited 2014 May 9];eight(1). To be had from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/percent/articles/PMC3555979/

60. Fung TT, van Dam RM, Hankinson SE, Stampfer M, Willett WC, Hu FB. Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Research. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 7;153(five):289–98.